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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 37  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 37-42

Ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in neurodevelopment: A synopsis of main pathways based on recent in vivo experimental findings

1 Physiology Laboratory, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
2 Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Apostolos Zarros
Lab 112, L1, Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G61 1QH, Scotland
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joacp.JOACP_415_19

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Ketamine, a phencyclidine derivative and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is widely used as an anesthetic, analgesic, and sedative agent in daily pediatric practice. Experimental studies have suggested that early prenatal or postnatal exposure to ketamine can induce neuroapoptosis, and establish neurobehavioral deficits that are evident in adulthood. However, most of the currently available clinical evidence is derived from retrospective and observational clinical studies. We, herein, attempt a brief review of the cellular and molecular mechanisms suggested to mediate ketamine-induced developmental neurotoxicity, utilizing a selected number of recent in vivo experimental evidence.

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