Development of a preoperative Early Warning Scoring System to identify highly suspect COVID-19 patients
Zulfiqar Ali1, Umesh Goneppanavar2, Pradeep A Dongare3, Rakesh Garg4, Sudheesh Kannan5, SS Harsoor6, S Bala Bhaskar7
1 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar, India
2 Professor of Anaesthesiology, Dharwad Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
3 ESI-PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Onco-Anaesthesia, Pain and Palliative Medicine, Dr BRA IRCH, AIIMS, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India
5 Professor of Anaesthesiology, BMCRI, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
6 Professor of Anaesthesiology, Dr BR Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
7 Professor of Anaesthesiology, Department of Anaesthesiology, Vijayanagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Ballari, Karnataka, India
Prof. S Bala Bhaskar
Department of Anaesthesiology, Vijayanagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Ballari, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background and Aims: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading at an unprecedented speed. Lack of resources to test every patient scheduled for surgery and false negative test results contribute to considerable stress to anesthesiologists, along with health risks to both caregivers and other patients. The study aimed to develop an early warning screening tool to rapidly detect 'highly suspect' among the patients scheduled for surgery.
Methods: Review of literature was conducted using terms 'coronavirus' OR 'nCoV 2019' OR 'SARS-CoV-2' OR 'COVID-19' AND 'clinical characteristics' in PUBMED and MedRxiv. Suitable articles were analysed for symptoms and investigations commonly found in COVID-19 patients. Additionally, COVID-19 patient's symptomatology and investigation profiles were obtained through a survey from 20 COVID-19 facilities in India. Based on literature evidence and the survey information, an Early Warning Scoring System was developed.
Results: Literature search yielded 3737 publications, of which 195 were considered relevant. Of these 195 studies, those already included in the meta-analyses were not considered for independent assessment. Based on the combined data from meta-analyses and survey, risk factors of COVID-19 disease identified were as follows: history of exposure, fever, cough, myalgias, lymphocytopaenia, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP)/lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and radiographic infiltrates.
Conclusion: Development of this Early Warning Scoring System for preoperative screening of patients may help in identifying 'highly suspect' COVID-19 patients, alerting the physician and other healthcare workers on the need for adequate personal protection and also to implement necessary measures to prevent cross infection and contamination during the perioperative period.