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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2016
Volume 32 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 421-545

Online since Friday, November 25, 2016

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The American Statistical Association statement on P- values explained Highly accessed article p. 421
Lakshmi Narayana Yaddanapudi
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Tourniquet application during anesthesia: “What we need to know?” Highly accessed article p. 424
Kamal Kumar, Craig Railton, Qutaiba Tawfic
Tourniquets are routinely and safely used in limb surgeries throughout the world. Tourniquet application alters normal physiology. Healthy patients tolerate these physiological changes well, but the physiological changes may not be well-tolerated by patients with poor cardiac function. This review discusses the physiological changes associated with tourniquet use, safe practice and provides the latest updates regarding tourniquet use. A systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar was done. The search results were limited to the randomized controlled trials and systemic reviews. The papers are summarized in this review.
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Acute respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation in pregnant patient: A narrative review of literature Highly accessed article p. 431
Pradeep Kumar Bhatia, Ghansham Biyani, Sadik Mohammed, Priyanka Sethi, Pooja Bihani
Physiological changes of pregnancy imposes higher risk of acute respiratory failure (ARF) with even a slight insult and remains an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although pregnant women have different respiratory physiology and different causes of ARF, guidelines specific to ventilatory settings, goals of oxygenation and weaning process could not be framed due to lack of large-scale randomized controlled trials. During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, pregnant women had higher morbidity and mortality compared to nonpregnant women. During this period, alternative strategies of ventilation such as high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, inhalational of nitric oxide, prone positioning, and extra corporeal membrane oxygenation were increasingly used as a desperate measure to rescue pregnant patients with severe hypoxemia who were not improving with conventional mechanical ventilation. This article highlights the causes of ARF and recent advances in invasive, noninvasive and alternative strategies of ventilation used during pregnancy.
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Current and emerging treatments for hypercholesterolemia: A focus on statins and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin Type 9 inhibitors for perioperative clinicians p. 440
Terrence L Trentman, Steven G Avey, Harish Ramakrishna
Statins are a mainstay of hyperlipidemia treatment. These drugs inhibit the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis including plaque stabilization, reduction of platelet activation, and reduction of plaque proliferation and inflammation. Statins also have a benefit beyond atherosclerotic plaque, including anticoagulation, vasodilatation, antioxidant effects, and reduction of mediators of inflammation. In the perioperative period, statins appear to contribute to improved outcomes via these mechanisms. Both vascular and nonvascular surgery patients have been shown in prospective studies to have lower risk of adverse cardiac outcomes when initiated on statins preoperatively. However, not all patients can tolerate statins; the search for novel lipid-lowering therapies led to the discovery of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. These drugs are fully-humanized, injectable monoclonal antibodies. With lower PCSK9 activity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) receptors are more likely to be recycled to the hepatocyte surface, where they serve to clear plasma LDL-C. Evidence from several prospective studies shows that these new agents can significantly lower LDL-C levels. While PCSK9 inhibitors offer hope of effective therapy for patients with familial hyperlipidemia or intolerance of statins, several important questions remain, including the results of long term cardiovascular outcome studies. The perioperative effects of new LDL-C-lowering drugs are unknown at present but are likely to be similar to the older agents.
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Prolonged patient emergence time among clinical anesthesia resident trainees p. 446
L McLean House, Nathan H Calloway, Warren S Sandberg, Jesse M Ehrenfeld
Background and Aims: Emergence time, or the duration between incision closure and extubation, is costly nonoperative time. Efforts to improve operating room efficiency and identify trainee progress make such time intervals of interest. We sought to calculate the incidence of prolonged emergence (i.e., >15 min) for patients under the care of clinical anesthesia (CA) residents. We also sought to identify factors from resident training, medical history, anesthetic use, and anesthesia staffing, which affect emergence. Material and Methods: In this single-center, historical cohort study, perioperative information management systems provided data for surgical cases under resident care at a tertiary care center in the United States from 2006 to 2008. Using multiple logistic regression, the effects of variables on emergence was analyzed. Results: Of 7687 cases under the care of 27 residents, the incidence of prolonged emergence was 13.9%. Emergence prolongation decreased by month in training for 1st-year (CA-1) residents (r2 = 0.7, P< 0.001), but not for CA-2 and CA-3 residents. Mean patient emergence time differed among 27 residents (P < 0.01 for 58.4% or 205/351 paired comparisons). In a model restricted to 1st-year residents, patient male gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status >II, emergency surgical case, operative duration ≥2 h, and paralytic agent use were associated with higher frequency of prolonged emergence, while sevoflurane or desflurane use was associated with lower frequency. Attending anesthesiologist handoff was not associated with longer emergence. Conclusion: Incidence of prolonged emergence from general anesthesia differed significantly among trainees, by resident training duration, and for patients with ASA >II.
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Awareness during general anesthesia: An Indian viewpoint p. 453
Reshma P Ambulkar, Vandana Agarwal, Priya Ranganathan, Jigeeshu V Divatia
Background and Aims: The incidence of intra-operative awareness with explicit recall in the Western world has been reported to be between 0.1% and 0.2% in the general surgical population and up to 1-2% of patients at high risk for this complication. Awareness in the Indian population has never been studied; we therefore wanted to detect the incidence of awareness in patients who were at high risk of experiencing awareness during surgery in our population. Material and Methods: We conducted a prospective single-center observational study at a 600-bedded tertiary cancer care referral hospital. We recruited adult patients posted for major cancer surgery who were considered to be at high risk for awareness. These patients were interviewed at three time-points using the structured modified Brice interview questionnaire. The primary outcome studied was the incidence of definite intra-operative awareness. Results: A total of 934 patients were included in the final analysis of which none reported awareness. Using the rule of three (Hanley and Lippman-Hand) we conclude that the upper 95% confidence interval for the incidence of awareness in this population is <1 in 300 (0.33%). Conclusion: Awareness under anesthesia is a distressing complication with a potential for long-term psychological consequences, and every effort should be undertaken to prevent it. It is reassuring though that our data in Indian cancer patients at high risk for intra-operative awareness suggests that it is an uncommon occurrence.
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The effect of epidural dexmedetomidine on oxygenation and shunt fraction in patients undergoing thoracotomy and one lung ventilation: A randomized controlled study p. 458
Prachi Kar, Padmaja Durga, Ramachandran Gopinath
Background and Aims: Role of epidural dexmedetomidine in providing analgesia is well documented, but its effect on oxygenation and shunt fraction is not well established. We studied the hypothesis that epidural dexmedetomidine may improve oxygenation and shunt fraction during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Material and Methods: After taking Institutional Ethics Committee approval, sixty patients undergoing thoracotomy and OLV were randomized to receive epidural ropivacaine with saline (RS group) or epidural ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine (RD group). Group RS received 7 ml of ropivacaine 0.5% with 1.5 ml normal saline (NS) bolus while RD group received 7 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 1 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine reconstituted in 1.5 ml NS. This was followed by infusion of 5 ml/h of 0.5% ropivacaine in RS group and 5 ml/h of 0.5% ropivacaine containing 0.2 mcg/kg of dexmedetomidine in RD group. Arterial and central venous blood gas parameters were obtained 15 minutes after intubation during two lung ventilation (TLV15), 15 and 45 min after OLV (OLV15, OLV45) and 15 minutes after reinstitution of two lung ventilation (ReTLV). Results: RD group had better oxygenation (254.2 ± 72.3 mmHg, 240.60 ± 59.26 mmHg) as compared to RS group (215.2 ± 64.3 mmHg, 190.7 ± 61.48 mmHg) at OLV15 (P - 0.04) and OLV45 (P - 0.004) respectively. Shunt fraction in RD group was (30.31 ± 7.89%, 33.76 ± 8.89%) and (35.14 ± 7.58%, 39.57 ± 13.03%) in RS group at OLV15 and OLV45, respectively. The increase in the shunt fraction from TLV15 was significantly greater in RS group than RD group both at OLV15 (P - 0.03) and OLV45 (P - 0.03). The sevoflurane and fentanyl requirement was lower in RD group. Conclusion: Epidural dexmedetomidine improves oxygenation and reduces shunt fraction during OLV, in patients undergoing thoracotomy. It also reduces intraoperative anesthetic and analgesic requirement.
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Role of edaravone in managemant of septic peritonitis p. 465
Ghada Fouad Elbaradey, Nagat Sayed Elshmaa, Hossam Hodeib
Background and Aims: Sepsis is a complex rapidly progressive infectious disease that remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients and trauma victims. Edaravone a novel free radical scavenger was approved in 2001 in Japan for treatment of acute cerebral and myocardial infarction. Hence, in this work we attempt to evaluate its role in cases of septic peritonitis (SP). Material and Methods: This is a prospective randomized observer-blinded study carried out in surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) after approval by Hospital Ethical Committee. After admission to ICU patients were randomly divided into two groups of thirty patients each-Group (C): Control group managed according to the routine protocol of sepsis and Group (E): Edaravone treated SP managed according to the routine protocol of sepsis + edaravone at dose of 30 mg/12 h intravenous infusion for 2 weeks. All patients were monitored for invasive blood pressure, central venous pressure, heart rate, temperature, urine output, total fluid balance, and routine investigation. Blood sample was taken weekly for 2 weeks to measure the following parameters: Nuclear transcription factor kappa B activity (NFKB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), heat shock protein 72 (HSP 72) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results: There was significant decrease (P < 0.05) in serum level of NFKB, MAPK in Group E in comparison with Group C. While serum level of HSP 72 and TAC showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in Group E compared with Group C with better outcome. Conclusion: SP treatment with edaravone could significantly improve the inflammatory and oxidative states with better patient outcomes.
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The effect of atrial natriuretic peptide infusion on intestinal injury in septic shock p. 470
Ghada F Elbaradey, Nagat Sayed Elshmaa, Hossam Hodeib
Background and Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in septic shock. Material and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled, observer-blinded study was carried out in surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU), University Hospital. Forty adult patients in septic shock were randomly divided into two groups, control group (Group C) received normal saline and ANP group (Group A) patients received ANP in the form of 1.5 mg vial added to 250 ml solvent in plastic bag (1 ml = 6 micg) given at 2 mcg/kg intravenous bolus over 1 min followed by 0.01 mcg/kg/min for 24 h. The primary outcome measurements were blood marker of intestinal hypoperfusion in form of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), malondialdehyde (MDA), myloperoxidase enzyme activity (MPO), protein carbonyl (PC), and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPA) measured before start of ANP infusion, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h after start of infusion. The secondary outcome measurements were the duration of noradrenaline infusion, duration of ICU stay, hospital mortality rate, and complications related to ANP. Results: In comparison with Group C, Group A showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in serum level of MPO, MDA, PC, and I-FABP, with a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum level of GPA, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h after the start of ANP infusion. There was significant decrease (P < 0.05) in mean duration of noradrenaline infusion, the length of ICU stay and mortality rate in Group A in comparison with Group C. In Group A, seven patients had mean arterial blood pressure <65 mmHg but respond to volume resuscitation, three patients serum sodium was 125–130 mmol/L. Conclusion: In cases of septic shock, concomitant administration of ANP with noradrenaline may have a protective effect against intestinal injury through a decrease in the level of intestinal hypoperfusion owing to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect.
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The effect of pregabalin and s-ketamine in total knee arthroplasty patients: A randomized trial p. 476
Lajla Kadic, Frank G van Haren, Oliver Wilder-Smith, Jorgen Bruhn, Jacques J Driessen, Maarten C de Waal Malefijt
Background and Aims: Pain reduction is important for rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty. Intra- and peri-articular infiltration with local anesthetics may be an alternative to commonly used locoregional techniques. Adding pregabalin orally and s-ketamine intravenously may further reduce postoperative pain. Material and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared two methods of perioperative analgesia. Control patients received a standardized multimodal postoperative analgesic regime of paracetamol, diclofenac, and piritramide-patient-controlled analgesia, including ropivacaine knee infiltration during surgery. The study group received pregabalin orally and s-ketamine intravenously as an additional medication to the standard multimodal regimen. The control group received placebo. Results: The study group showed lower piritramide consumption during the first 24 h (P: 0.043), but with more side effects such as diplopia and dizziness. Conclusion: Addition of pregabalin and s-ketamine resulted in lower piritramide consumption during the first 24 h postoperatively. However, more investigation on benefits versus side effects of this medication is required.
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Intrathecal ropivacaine with or without tramadol for lower limb orthopedic surgeries p. 483
Rashmi Salhotra, Medha Mohta, Deepti Agarwal, Ashok K Sethi
Background and Aim: Preservative free tramadol has been used as an adjuvant to intrathecal bupivacaine. However, the effect of the addition of tramadol on intrathecal isobaric ropivacaine has never been studied. Material and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was conducted in 50 adult male American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I or II patients, aged 18-60 years, being operated for unilateral femur fractures. An epidural catheter was inserted in L2-L3 interspace and subarachnoid block was given in L3-L4 space. The patients were randomized to receive 0.5 mL normal saline (group R) or 0.5 mL (25 mg) preservative free tramadol (group RT) with 2.5 mL of 0.75% intrathecal ropivacaine. Hemodynamic parameters, sensory level, motor block, sedation and side-effects were recorded. Statistical analysis was done using Student's t-test, Chi-square test, Fischer's exact test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: The time of sensory block onset was 9.2 ± 4.9 min and 8.6 ± 5.3 min (P = 0.714) in group R and group RT, respectively. The motor block onset was also comparable in both the groups (P = 0.112). The duration of sensory block was 147.2 ± 37.4 min in group R and 160.4 ± 40.9 min in group RT (P = 0.252). The median maximum block height achieved in both the groups was T6 and the time to achieve the maximum block was also comparable statistically (P = 0.301). Conclusion: The addition of intrathecal tramadol 25 mg to the isobaric ropivacaine does not alter the block characteristics produced by intrathecal ropivacaine alone.
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Randomized double-blind comparison of remifentanil and alfentanil in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy using total intravenous anesthesia p. 487
José M Belena, Mónica Núñez, Alfonso Vidal, Diego Anta
Background and Aims: To compare the use of remifentanil and alfentanil to suppress intraoperative adrenergic response of pain and the influence of these drugs on the recovery profile in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy using a total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) technique. Material and Methods: One hundred patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to be managed with either remifentanil (group R) or alfentanil (group A). During general anesthesia, we evaluated adrenergic responses to intubation to first surgical incision and over the surgical procedure. We also recorded time to first spontaneous breathing, time to successful ventilation, time to respond to verbal orders, and time to extubation. Results: The R group reported a significantly lower number of responses to intubation and responses to first surgical incision (14% vs. 30%; P = 0.013 and 8% vs. 18%; P = 0,037, respectively). The event of one or more responses during the surgical procedure was also lower in the R group (56% vs. 70%; P = 0.017). Hypertensive response to surgical stimuli during the procedure was lower in the R group as well as a lower frequency of tachycardia episodes in this group (34% vs. 56%; P = 0.033 and 28% vs. 44%; P = 0.041, respectively). No differences were found between groups relating to the percentage of hypotensive episodes and no episodes of bradycardia were appreciated. Both groups were similar relating to recovery times: time to the first spontaneous breathing, time to successful ventilation, time to respond to verbal orders, and time to extubation. Conclusion: Remifentanil showed a more stable hemodynamic response during the surgery compared with the use of alfentanil in anesthetized patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy using TIVA. Both opioids, alfentanil and remifentanil, have a similar recovery profile, and they do not delay time to awakening.
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Role of preemptive tapentadol in reduction of postoperative analgesic requirements after laparoscopic cholecystectomy p. 492
Ghanshyam Yadav, Gaurav Jain, Abhishek Samprathi, Annavi Baghel, Dinesh Kumar Singh
Background and Aims: Poorly managed acute postoperative pain may result in prolonged morbidity. Various pharmacotherapies have targeted this, but research on an ideal preemptive analgesic continues, taking into account drug-related side effects. Considering the better tolerability profile of tapentadol, we assessed its role as a preemptive analgesic in the reduction of postoperative analgesic requirements, after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: In a prospective-double-blinded fashion, sixty patients posted for above surgery, were randomized to receive tablet tapentadol 75 mg (Group A) or starch tablets (Group B) orally, an hour before induction of general anesthesia. Perioperative analgesic requirement, time to first analgesia, pain, and sedation score were compared for first 24 h during the postoperative period and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance test. A P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Sixty patients were analyzed. The perioperative analgesic requirement was significantly lower in Group A. Verbal numerical score was significantly lower in Group A at the time point, immediately after shifting the patient to the postanesthesia care unit. Ramsay sedation scores were similar between the groups. No major side effects were observed except for nausea and vomiting in 26 cases (10 in Group A, 16 in Group B). Conclusion: Single preemptive oral dose of tapentadol (75 mg) is effective in reducing perioperative analgesic requirements and acute postoperative pain, without added side effects. It could be an appropriate preemptive analgesic, subjected to future trials concentrating upon its dose-response effects.
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Comparison of different regimens of intravenous dexmedetomidine on duration of subarachnoid block p. 497
Anil Thomas, M. V. S Satyaprakash, Lenin Babu Elakkumanan, Prasanna Udupi Bidkar, Sandeep Kumar Mishra
Background and Aims: Many studies have studied the effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine on the prolongation of the duration of the subarachnoid block (SAB). These studies had administered dexmedetomidine using different regimens. This study was designed to find out the suitable regimen with maximum advantages and minimum disadvantages. Material and Methods: Ninety-three ASA 1 and 2 patients scheduled to undergo surgeries under SAB were randomly allocated into three groups namely B, M, and BM. After SAB, Group B received 0.5 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine bolus over 15 min, Group M received 0.5 μg/kg/h of dexmedetomidine infusion until the end of surgery, Group BM received both bolus and infusion. Results: The time to achieve T10 sensory level (SL) was significantly faster in the Groups B and BM than in the Group M. Maximum block height achieved was T4 and was same in all the groups. The Time to achieve maximum SL and Bromage 3 was comparable in all groups. The two-segment regression time and time to reach Bromage 0 was significantly higher in Groups M and BM than Group B. The time for a first request of analgesia was similar in Groups M and BM. The maximum sedation attained in all groups was Ramsay Sedation Score of 3. Side effects such as bradycardia, hypotension, and desaturation were comparable between the groups. Conclusion: We conclude that the continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine results in more advantages than just a bolus dose. Therefore, we suggest using only the maintenance dose of intravenous dexmedetomidine after subarachnoid blockade for prolonging the duration and achieving sedation.
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Addition of clonidine to bupivacaine in transversus abdominis plane block prolongs postoperative analgesia after cesarean section p. 501
Ranju Singh, Nishant Kumar, Aruna Jain, Sudipta Joy
Background and Aims: The aim was to compare duration of postoperative analgesia with addition of clonidine to bupivacaine in bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block after lower segment cesarean section (LSCS). Material and Methods: One hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade I and II pregnant patients undergoing LSCS under spinal anesthesia were randomly divided to receive either 20 ml bupivacaine 0.25% (Group B; n = 50) or 20 ml bupivacaine+1ug/kg clonidine bilaterally (Group BC; n = 50) in TAP block in a double-blind fashion. The total duration of analgesia, patient satisfaction score, total requirement of analgesics in the first 24 h, and the side effects of clonidine such as sedation, dryness of mouth, hypotension, and bradycardia were observed. P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: In 99 patients analyzed, TAP block failed in five patients. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group BC (17.8 ± 3.7 h) compared to Group B (7.3 ± 1.2 h; P < 0.01). Mean consumption of diclofenac was 150 mg and 65.4 mg in Groups B and BC (P < 0.01), respectively. All patients in Group BC were extremely satisfied (P < 0.01) while those in Group B were satisfied. Thirteen patients (28%) in Group BC were sedated but arousable (P = 0.01) compared to none in Group B. In Group BC, 19 patients complained of dry mouth compared to 13 in Group B (P = 0.121). None of the patients experienced hypotension or bradycardia. Conclusion: Addition of clonidine 1 μg/kg to 20 ml bupivacaine 0.25% in TAP block bilaterally for cesarean section significantly increases the duration of postoperative analgesia, decreases postoperative analgesic requirement, and increases maternal comfort compared to 20 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% alone.
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Randomized controlled study comparing the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation with McCoy, Macintosh, and C-MAC laryngoscopes in adult patients p. 505
Faiza Sulaiman Buhari, Venkatesh Selvaraj
Background and Aims: Earlier studies have shown that the type of laryngoscope blade influences the degree of hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hemodynamic response to oral endotracheal intubation with C-MAC laryngoscopy and McCoy laryngoscopy compared to that of Macintosh laryngoscopy in adult patients under general anesthesia. Material and Methods: This is a prospective randomized parallel group study. Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists I patients were randomly allotted into three groups. Group A - Macintosh laryngoscopy (control group). Group B - laryngoscopy with McCoy laryngoscope. Group C - laryngoscopy with C-MAC video laryngoscope. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were monitored at baseline (just before induction), just before intubation (T0), 1 min (T1), 3 min (T3), 5 min (T5), and 10 min (T10) after intubation. Intergroup comparison of study parameters was done by unpaired sample t-test for normal data and Mann-Whitney U-test for skewed data. For within-group comparison, the repeated measures of ANOVA for normal data and Friedman followed by Wilcoxon signed rank test for skewed data were performed. Results: In C-MAC group, the HR was significantly higher than the Macintosh group at 3 min after intubation, whereas SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly higher at 1 min. McCoy group showed a similar response compared to Macintosh group at all time intervals. Conclusion: C-MAC video laryngoscope has a comparatively greater hemodynamic response than Macintosh laryngoscope.
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Comparison of three insertion techniques of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway: A randomized clinical trial p. 510
Kadirehally Bheemanna Nalini, Shivanna Shivakumar, Shivashankar Archana, Doddagavanahalli Channaiah Sandhya Rani, Chadalavada Venkata Rama Mohan
Background and Aims: We aimed to compare three techniques for insertion of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA). Material and Methods: Two hundred ten patients (American Society of Anaethesiologists I-II, aged 18-60 years) undergoing general anesthesia using the PLMA as an airway management device were randomly allocated to digital (D), rotational (R), or pharyngoscopic (P) techniques. In the D group (n = 70), the PLMA insertion was performed by using digital manipulation. In the R group (n = 70), the PLMA was inserted into the mouth, rotated anticlockwise through 90° and advanced into the hypopharynx. In the P group (n = 70), the PLMA was inserted after gentle pharyngoscopy using laryngoscope. Success rate at the first attempt, insertion time, airway manipulations required, and postoperative complications were noted. Results: Insertion at first attempt was more successful with P technique than the R and D groups (100% vs. 98.5% vs. 81.4% respectively, P < 0.01). Insertion time was shortest for the P group which was statistically significant compared to the group D (P < 0.001), but comparable with the R group. None of the patients required manipulation in the P group compared to the group R (P = 0.04) and D (P < 0.001). Blood staining (group P = 2.8% vs. group R = 2.8% vs. group D = 22%, P < 0.0001) and sore throat (group P = 0% vs. group R = 6.9% vs. group D = 16.7%, both: P < 0.005) were lower with the pharyngoscopic technique. Conclusion: We conclude that the pharyngoscopic technique for PLMA insertion is more successful with lower incidence of complications (mucosal bleeding and sore throat).
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Comparison of intubating laryngeal mask airway and fiberoptic bronchoscopy for endotracheal intubation in patients undergoing cervical discectomy p. 515
Kolli S Chalam, Jyothi Gupta
Background and Aims: Direct laryngoscopy is hazardous in patients with cervical posterior intervertebral disc prolapse (PIVD) as it may worsen the existing cord compression. To achieve smooth intubation, many adjuncts such as fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB), video laryngoscopes, lighted stylets, and intubating laryngeal mask airways (ILMAs) are available. However, there is a paucity of literature comparing ILMA with fiberoptic intubation in patients with PIVD. Hence, this study was designed to compare the effectiveness of ILMA technique with FOB to accomplish endotracheal intubation in patients undergoing cervical discectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty patients of age group 20-60 years, of American Society of Anesthesiologists status I or II, were enrolled in this prospective and randomized study. They were allocated to one of the two groups, ILMA group and FOB group. The patients were intubated orally using either equipment, after dexmedetomidine premedication and induction of general anesthesia. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to find the significance of study parameters on a categorical scale. Paired samples t-test and Student's t-test were used to find the significance of study parameters on a continuous scale. Significance was assessed at 5% level of significance. Results: Bronchoscopy was a faster method of securing airway as compared with ILMA (38.13 ± 11.52 vs. 29.83 ± 13.75 s). Tracheal intubation was successful in all 60 patients (100%), belonging to both groups. Conclusion: ILMA and FOB were comparable with regards to ease of intubation in terms of time, the number of attempts and hemodynamic stability.
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Is dedicating an ultrasound machine to regional anesthesia an economically viable option? p. 519
Vrushali Ponde, Dinesh Borse, Jayashree More, Tulsidas Mange
Background and Aims: The cost effectiveness of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia is an issue which requires discussion. Based on our experience, we hypothesized that this is an economically viable option. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, we included 90 patients who underwent upper extremity surgeries in our institute solely under ultrasound (USG)-guided brachial plexus blocks in a year. The cost of the block was derived by adding the cost of the material and drugs used for the block. This cost was subtracted from the cost that otherwise would have been incurred for general anesthesia (GA) of similar duration. This cost difference or benefit per case was then used to calculate the duration in years required to recover the cost of the ultrasound machine. Statistics: Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Analysis of variance was applied to compare mean benefits as per surgery, block, and duration. Ninety-five percent confidence interval for mean were calculated. Level of significance was taken as P = 0.05. Results: There were significant economic benefits using ultrasound guidance as compared to GA. Benefits differed significantly as per the type of surgery, type of block, and duration of the surgery. With the cost benefit that we have obtained, the cost of USG machine can be recovered in about 3 years. Conclusion: USG regional anesthesia is an economically viable concept. The cost benefit increases with the duration of a given surgery and increases with the number of blocks.
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Prolonged coma after anesthesia p. 523
Surath Manimala Rao
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Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain p. 525
Binay Kumar Biswas, Samarjit Dey, Saumya Biswas, Varinder Kumar Mohan
Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18th-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment.
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Posterior cerebral stroke: An unusual cause of postoperative bilateral sensorineural hearing loss after laparoscopic surgery p. 528
Jyotsna Punj, Nagaraj , Divya , P Preetam, Vanlal Darlong, Ravindra Pandey
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Factitious reading by gas monitor p. 530
Ankur Sharma, Ghanshyam Biyani, Rashmi Ramachandran
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Intrathoracic bronchial intubation: A feasible option to manage life-threatening hypoxia in a neonate p. 532
Deepak Dwivedi, Sajan Joshi, Indu M Sen
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Emergency craniotomy in Glanzmann thrombasthenia: Anesthetic management and brief review of literature p. 533
Devi Prasad Dash, Abhuday Kumar, Babita Gupta
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Lateral position… beware! p. 535
Tasneem Dhansura, Shakir Kapadia, Disha Kapadia
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Hyperventilation syndrome after general anesthesia: Our experience p. 536
Teena Bansal, Sarla Hooda
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Hydatidiform mole with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism: An anesthetic challenge p. 537
Nidhi Bhatia, Sanwar Mal Mitharwal
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Cardiac arrest after tramadol injection in a polytrauma patient p. 539
Sukhen Samanta, Sujay Samanta, Daipayan Chatterjee, Kapil Dev Soni
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Cognitive function test: Is preanesthesia checkup complete without this? p. 540
Sheetal Yogesh Chiplonkar, Pratibha Vinayak Toal, Adit Jagdish Palsania
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Do we need bronchoscopy during percutaneous tracheostomy? p. 541
Kapil Dev Soni, Abhyuday Kumar, Richa Aggrawal, Anudeep Saxena
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Lower tidal volumes through ProSeal laryngeal mask airway as compared to endotracheal tube? p. 543
Asha Tyagi, Rashmi Salhotra
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Video laryngoscope aids in the assessment of vocal cord paralysis due to recurrent laryngeal nerve injury after thyroid surgery p. 544
Faisal Shamim, Marium Nafis, Mubasher Ikram
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